In comparison to English and other European languages, there is very little in the way of fixed rules in Thai grammar. There's no definite or indefinite articles, no verb conjugations, no noun declensions, no object pronouns, and past and future tenses are often indicated only by context, or with the words "already" or "will" tacked on. If words aren't needed to make sense in the sentence, then they're often omitted. This may make it seem quite simple, but the lack of structure can end up making understanding sentences more difficult than others with stricter grammar rules.
Thai language has no past tense. To indicate an action which took place in the past, a time word is added. For Instance, Yesterday is translated with moer-warn-nee. This word is added at the end of the sentence: "We learned Thai languages yesterday", which becomes "rao rian par-sar Thai moer-warn-nee".
To express the Present Continuous Tense, Thai uses the word "gum-lang" (v + ing) in front of verb in sentence. Ex."I am playing games" transaltes with "chan gum-lang lean games".
To express future tenses. it is used the word "ja" (will or shall) + verb, and with or without a period of time word to indicate that we are referring to the future. Ex. "He will go to Hua - Hin next Sunday" becomes “khao ja pai Hua-Hin wan ar-tid nar".
Expressions of time, place, quantity
Unlike in English, these words are always at the end of the sentence.
- What ? : a-rai. Ex.What is your name? kun cheu a-rai? (lit. your name what)
- When ? : moer-rai Ex.When do you go home? kun glab barn moer-rai?
- Where ? : tee-nhai Ex.Where do you come from? kun mar jarg tee-nhai?
- Why ? : tum-mai Ex. Why do you do that? kun tam yarng-nan tum-mai?
Possession may be shown by adding the word "kong" in front of the noun or pronoun but it can often be omitted.
- look kong mae Thai = child belonging to mother English = mother's child
- naa aar Thai = field uncle English = uncle's field